Differences in Personality and Patterns of Recidivism Between Early Starters and Other
Serious Male Offenders
X. Ge, M. B. Donnellan and E. Wenk,
Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
31(1): 068-077, 2003.
In this study, the differences in personality and patterns of recidivism were compared between
individuals with an early incidence of offending ("early starters") and their later-starting counterparts
("later starters"). Results indicated that early starters were significantly different from later starters
in several personality characteristics, as measured by the California Personality Inventory (CPI) and
the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). Specifically, early starters scored lower
on the responsibility and socialization scales of the CPI and higher on the paranoia, schizophrenia,
and hypomania scales of the MMPI. Moreover, results indicated that early starters were at a
significantly higher risk for recidivism than later starters, both at a 15-month and a 20-year follow-up.